APA's foundation is closely linked to the history of the discipline in Portugal. Ethnology, in connection with folklore, has a long history in Portugal, dating back to the nineteenth century. During the second half of the last century, there was some effort to institute the academic teaching of anthropology, mainly physical, linked to the formation of colonial administrative personnel. However it was only after the end of the dictatorship, in 1974, that sociocultural anthropology became a course in our universisites, attracting young students and scholars. When APA was founded in 1989, Portuguese anthropology was becoming for the first time a lively, self-reproducing field of academic endeavour.